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Spring 2002

Spring 2002

Volume 78, Number 2

  • Henry Adams at Ground Zero by Sanford Pinsker
  • The Road to September 11 by Jack Fischel
  • The New Deal ‘Constitutional Revolution’ as an Historical Problem by Edward A. Purcell Jr.
  • Making Sense of America by Christopher Clausen
  • Fiction by Kent Nelson, M.C. Allan, Elizabeth Denton, Karl Iagnemma
  • Poetry by Andrew Feld, Renate Wood, Debra Nystrom, Bill Christophersen, Carol Henrie, Charles Harper Webb, Gerry LaFemina, Ali Yuce
[toc] Table of Contents


Spring 2002

Table of Contents

The Road to September 11

Historians looking back at the tragic events of September 11 will discover the roots of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon originating in three episodes that occurred in 1979. The first event was the Iranian Revolution which overthrew the Shah and created an Islamic Republic under the leadership of the Ayatollah Khomeini. The second occurrence was the successful conclusion of the Camp David meetings between Anwar Sadat and Menachim Begin, wherein Israel and Egypt concluded a peace treaty which not only ended the state of war between both countries, which commenced with the establishment of the Jewish state in 1948, but also witnessed the first Arab state to make peace with Israel. The third incident was the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The United States during the Carter presidency responded to Soviet aggression by aiding the Afghanistan opposition against the invasion of their country. Despairing, however, of being able to form a unified coalition, because of the intense ethnic divisions among the country's clans, the United States covertly sent financial aid and arms (including stinger missiles) through the Pakistani Interservices Intelligence (ISI), Pakistan's counterpart of our CIA, to unite the Afghani opposition under the banner of Islam.


Editor’s Desk



Author Profiles

Sanford Pinsker is the author and editor of more than a dozen books, including book-length studies of Philip Roth, Cynthia Ozick, Joseph Heller, and J. D. Salinger.